YEARS OF INACTION - Many wars have been waged over mineral rights and control of oil flow, used to power our
engine vehicles. Imagine a world where free energy form nature
powers our vehicles, and every country has their own electricity supply,
independent of fossil
fuel imports. Energy security is a big step towards world peace. By
way of example, SmartNet™
service stations might supply hydrogen for heavy goods vehicles, and electricity
to rapid charge conventional battery vehicles. They also act as grid
load-levelers for changeable wind and
solar renewables. This kind of
technology could free us from carcinogens
in cities and reduces global
warming. If we are to supply trucks and cars with energy, we need
around 600,000 smart service stations globally before 2050, meaning mass
are necessary to reach such goal economically. At 2019 end, 470 hydrogen
stations were operating worldwide, 1/1200th of what is required.
were to pool resources, to accelerate climate cooling technology, we may
stand a chance of meeting the 1.5 degree temperature rise threshold, and
even begin to get back to some kind of sustainable level. But that is
looking highly unlikely due to the inability of larger organizations to
adapt, or change.
change threatens to destabilize the economics of planet
earth, such that
all the theoretical protections afforded by Copyright,
Trademarks will come to naught. Food security and
energy for our
and transport systems is far more important, where
we have already
thousands of species, created deserts of arable land and are in the
process of melting our ice
plastic in our oceans is making
toxin laden fish inedible, and with
under pressure to feed a growing
population, it is likely that there
will be food
shortages, leading to global conflict and potentially
cannibalism as a last resort, where desertification
is eating up land for crops and grazing animals - and is at the moment unstoppable.
Humans represent one of the most
prolific protein sources on the planet, if looked at as livestock.
Culling should enable the earth to recover eventually and reach a
natural equilibrium, with lessons learned for our great grandchildren's
survivors. But should we let it even approach that stage?
- World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO)
Convention Establishing the World Intellectual Property Organization
(Signed at Stockholm on July 14, 1967 and
as amended on September 28, 1979)
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Article 1: Establishment of the Organization
Article 2: Definitions
Article 3: Objectives of the Organization
Article 4: Functions
Article 5: Membership
Article 6: General Assembly
Article 7: Conference
Article 8: Coordination Committee
Article 9: International Bureau
Article 10: Headquarters
Article 11: Finances
Article 12: Legal Capacity; Privileges and Immunities
Article 13: Relations with Other Organizations
Article 14: Becoming Party to the Convention
Article 15: Entry into Force of the Convention
Article 16: Reservations
Article 17: Amendments
Article 18: Denunciation
Article 19: Notifications
Article 20: Final Provisions
Article 21: Transitional Provisions
Article 10 -
Article 11 -
(1) The Organization shall have two separate budgets: the budget of expenses common to the Unions, and the budget of the Conference.
(a) The budget of expenses common to the Unions shall include provision for expenses of interest to several Unions.
(b) This budget shall be financed from the following sources:
(i) contributions of the Unions, provided that the amount of the contribution of each Union shall be fixed by the Assembly of that Union, having regard to the interest the Union has in the common expenses;
(ii) charges due for services performed by the International Bureau not in direct relation with any of the Unions or not received for services rendered by the International Bureau in the field of legal-technical assistance;
(iii) sale of, or royalties on, the publications of the International Bureau not directly concerning any of the Unions;
(iv) gifts, bequests, and subventions, given to the Organization, except those referred to in paragraph (3)(b)(iv);
(v) rents, interests, and other miscellaneous income, of the Organization.
(a) The budget of the Conference shall include provision for the expenses of holding sessions of the Conference and for the cost of the legal-technical assistance program.
(b) This budget shall be financed from the following sources:
(i) contributions of States party to this Convention not members of any of the Unions;
(ii) any sums made available to this budget by the Unions, provided that the amount of the sum made available by each Union shall be fixed by the Assembly of that Union and that each Union shall be free to abstain from contributing to the said budget;
(iii) sums received for services rendered by the International Bureau in the field of legal-technical assistance;
(iv) gifts, bequests, and subventions, given to the Organization for the purposes referred to in subparagraph (a).
(a) For the purpose of establishing its contribution towards the budget of the Conference, each State party to this Convention not member of any of the Unions shall belong to a class, and shall pay its annual contributions on the basis of a number of units fixed as follows2:
Class A .......... 10
Class B ............ 3
Class C ............ 1
(b) Each such State shall, concurrently with taking action as provided in Article 14(1), indicate the class to which it wishes to belong. Any such State may change class. If it chooses a lower class, the State must announce it to the Conference at one of its ordinary sessions. Any such change shall take effect at the beginning of the calendar year following the session.
(c) The annual contribution of each such State shall be an amount in the same proportion to the total sum to be contributed to the budget of the Conference by all such States as the number of its units is to the total of the units of all the said States.
(d) Contributions shall become due on the first of January of each year.
(e) If the budget is not adopted before the beginning of a new financial period, the budget shall be at the same level as the budget of the previous year, in accordance with the financial regulations.
(5) Any State party to this Convention not member of any of the Unions which is in arrears in the payment of its financial contributions under the present Article, and any State party to this Convention member of any of the Unions which is in arrears in the payment of its contributions to any of the Unions, shall have no vote in any of the bodies of the Organization of which it is a member, if the amount of its arrears equals or exceeds the amount of the contributions due from it for the preceding two full years. However, any of these bodies may allow such a State to continue to exercise its vote in that body if, and as long as, it is satisfied that the delay in payment arises from exceptional and unavoidable circumstances.
(6) The amount of the fees and charges due for services rendered by the International Bureau in the field of legal-technical assistance shall be established, and shall be reported to the Coordination Committee, by the Director General.
(7) The Organization, with the approval of the Coordination Committee, may receive gifts, bequests, and subventions, directly from Governments, public or private institutions, associations or private persons.
(a) The Organization shall have a working capital fund which shall be constituted by a single payment made by the Unions and by each State party to this Convention not member of any Union. If the fund becomes insufficient, it shall be increased.
(b) The amount of the single payment of each Union and its possible participation in any increase shall be decided by its Assembly.
(c) The amount of the single payment of each State party to this Convention not member of any Union and its part in any increase shall be a proportion of the contribution of that State for the year in which the fund is established or the increase decided. The proportion and the terms of payment shall be fixed by the Conference on the proposal of the Director General and after it has heard the advice of the Coordination Committee.
(a) In the headquarters agreement concluded with the State on the territory of which the Organization has its headquarters, it shall be provided that, whenever the working capital fund is insufficient, such State shall grant advances. The amount of these advances and the conditions on which they are granted shall be the subject of separate agreements, in each case, between such State and the Organization. As long as it remains under the obligation to grant advances, such State shall have an ex officio seat on the Coordination Committee.
(b) The State referred to in subparagraph (a) and the Organization shall each have the right to denounce the obligation to grant advances, by written notification. Denunciation shall take effect three years after the end of the year in which it has been notified.
(10) The auditing of the accounts shall be effected by one or more Member States, or by external auditors, as provided in the financial regulations. They shall be designated, with their agreement, by the General Assembly.
Article 12 -
Legal Capacity; Privileges and Immunities >>>
NEW CONTRIBUTION SYSTEM
The Governing Bodies of WIPO and the Unions administered by WIPO adopted with effect from January 1, 1994, a new contribution system that replaces the contribution system set forth in Article 11(4)(a), (b) and (c) of the WIPO Convention, Article 16(4)(a), (b) and (c) of the Paris Convention, Article 25(4)(a), (b) and (c) of the
Berne Convention and the corresponding provisions of the Strasbourg (IPC), Nice, Locarno and Vienna Agreements. Details concerning that system may be obtained from the International Bureau of
The Governing Bodies of WIPO and the Unions administered by WIPO adopted from January 1, 1994, a new contribution system that replaces the contribution system set forth in Article 11(4)(a), (b) and (c) of the Convention Establishing the World Intellectual Property Organization. Details concerning that system may be obtained from the International Bureau of WIPO.
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